How QuarkChain Aims to Meet the Global-Commercial Standard

C:\Users\admin\Downloads\benn-godenzi-had-keen-interest-in-blockchain-technology.jpg

Transacting quickly and securely is essential for businesses. QuarkChain is a unique, two-layer blockchain solution that can deliver over 100,000 on-chain transactions per second. QuarkChain’s innovative framework also prevents double-spending attacks, and its market-driven mining increases system throughput.

QuarkChain ICO

QuarkChain’s ICO took place in 2018, and raised an impressive $20,000,000, reaching 100% of its fundraising goal. QuarkChain enlisted the assistance of Benn Godenzi to ensure its ICO was successful. Benn’s list of successful ICOs includes EdenChain, WanChain, CryptoCurve, and Origo Network.

QuarkChain utilized a private-sale model for its ICO, releasing 20% of its total supply to private investors. Benn Godenzi’s numerous connections within the cryptocurrency space likely helped it achieve its private ICO fundraising goals.

What is QuarkChain?

QuarkChain aims to meet the global-commercial standard with high throughput, security, and its innovative sharding-based blockchain. Sharding essentially splits a blockchain’s network into smaller divisions, enabling more transactions-per-second. When transacting from one shard to another, transaction speeds increase even further.

Sharding typically raises security concerns since shards are often more susceptible to attack than non-sharded blockchains. However, QuarkChain addresses most security concerns commonly attributed to sharding by allocating 50% of its hash power to its root chain. With QuarkChain’s enhanced security and lightning-fast transactions, it’s poised to enhance commercial blockchain transactions in a significant way.

Because QuarkChain is a Turing-complete smart contract platform, it’s compatible with Ethereum Virtual Machine decentralized apps (dApps). Ethereum Virtual Machine dApps are deterministic applications capable of running in isolated virtual environments, making them ideal for businesses interested in using smart contracts.

QuarkChain So Far

QuarkChain released its official whitepaper in February 2018. The detailed whitepaper is 47-pages long and covers QuarkChain’s technology, use cases, and roadmap. In late 2018, QuarkChain released its first MainNet smart wallet. In Q2 of 2019, QuarkChain released QuarkChain Core 2.0, adding more shards and enabling faster transactions. In late 2019, QuarkChain began its community governance efforts, allowing users to vote on new shard development.

QuarkChain began integrating Matic Network solutions into the QuarkChain platform in early 2021. The Matic Network is an off-chain solution that should allow QuarkChain to utilize sidechains, which run parallel to the existing blockchain. With QuarkChain’s two-layer blockchain and Matic’s sidechain features, QuarkChain may be one of the safest, fastest blockchain solutions on the market.

QuarkChain Price

It is unknown what QuarkChain’s private ICO price was during their initial price offering with Benn Godenzi. When QuarkChain first released their public sale, they traded around $0.23 per token. QuarkChain’s price is significantly lower today than when they first began trading, although this may be because they sold 20% of their supply before trading on public exchanges. Today, a single QuarkChain token trades for a little over $0.02.

Trademark and trade name registration is essential in the U.S.: Dr. Gregory Finkelson  

Dr. Gregory Finkelson discusses trademarks and trade names and registration basics.

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA, June 19, 2022 — When establishing a business, there are many administrative responsibilities to take care of relative to registration, taxation, and more. According to Dr. Gregory Finkelson, this makes it all too easy for other necessary tasks, like registering for trademarks, to take the backseat as operations begin.

However, this process is extremely important to tap into the added protections of holding a trademark as soon as possible. Finkelson said many do not understand the basics of trademark registration and the benefits it provides, so they never consider it a priority until it becomes an issue.

Dr. Gregory Finkelson explains trademark basics

Trademarks and trade names are often confused, and they are not interchangeable terms. A trade name is just another way to refer to the name of a business. They can be registered with the home state of the business but are not a form of protection.

They are sometimes referred to as the “doing business as” name and are typically kept on file with the Secretary of State or a similar office at the state level to log the legal status of a sole proprietorship, LLC, or corporation.

With a trade name, basic common-law rights are afforded to a business. When a company is the first to use a term commercially, ownership can be enforced locally or within the state, but the legal claim can be tenuous and rarely crosses state lines.

A trademark is more robust and operates at the federal level with the United States Patent and Trademark Office, or USPTO, according to Dr. Gregory Finkelson. When the mark is registered, the business receives registration in an online database, and a public notice is published spelling out ownership of the trademark.

The range of protection afforded by a trademark covers the U.S. and also makes it possible to enforce the use of the trademark relative to the import of foreign goods. For example, a foreign company could not start under the same name and import products to the U.S.

Trademarks at the federal level are also able to use the official ® for the registered trademark symbol, while products registered elsewhere can only use the trademark or service mark designations.

Getting started early

While many defer registering a trademark at the start of a business, Dr. Gregory Finkelson reports it is best to get the process rolling early as it takes time.

Applications may not be approved for months, and the process — while straightforward — can have layers depending on the type of registration. Sometimes the services of a lawyer are required, particularly when a trademark would cover goods or services provided across several classes or categories.

What is protected by a trademark?

Many popular businesses are known by both a name and a logo or other intellectual property. Dr. Gregory Finkelson advises it’s important to realize a name trademark is not an umbrella for all assets.

Instead, trademarks need to be obtained for any intellectual property unique and popular for identifying a company. The intellectual property covered by trademarks can include logs and symbols associated with the business as well as words, key phrases, slogans, and specific designs. Each requires a separate application with the USPTO. 

Wellman Shew: Employee Benefits that Small Businesses Should Offer

Wellman Shew dives into the what and why employee benefits.

Small businesses need to offer their employees a variety of benefits. Not only does this help to attract and retain talent, but it also helps businesses by increasing productivity and employee satisfaction.

Some of the most popular benefits that small businesses should offer include: health insurance, 401(k) retirement plans, disability insurance, life insurance, paid vacation time (at least one week), paid sick days (at least 10), and paid holidays (at least 8).

Wellman Shew says that a small business is not required to offer health insurance as an employee benefit. However, it can be a great way to attract and retain employees.

Health insurance

Wellman Shew explains that It can be challenging to find a plan for employers and employees. For example, some programs may have high deductibles or too many out-of-pocket expenses. This could make it hard for employees to afford their care needs, leading to them quitting their jobs.

The best way for a small business to offer health insurance as an employee benefit is by looking at all of the options available in their area or state. Wellman Shew says they should also consider the number of employees they have to find a plan that will work for them financially and help them.

401(k) retirement plans

401(k) retirement plans are a type of employee benefit that offers employees an opportunity to contribute a portion of their pre-tax earnings to an individual retirement account. These contributions provide many benefits, including tax-deferred growth and tax-free withdrawals in retirement.

Disability insurance

As the workforce grows, employers need to offer more benefits as an incentive for employees to stay with their company. One benefit that employers may want to consider is disability insurance, which provides a financial safety net if the employee becomes injured or sick and cannot work for some time.

Budget-friendly employee benefits

Wellman Shew adds that you can offer many different benefits to your employees, but it’s best to start with those that don’t cost too much money. These include:

– Flexible work hours

– Paid time off

– Work from home days

Why small businesses should provide employee benefits

According to Wellman Shew, employee benefits are one of the most important aspects of hiring, retaining, and motivating employees.

Some of the advantages that come from employee benefits include:

– Employee retention: Benefits can help retain employees by providing them with a competitive edge over other companies.

– Motivation: Employees are motivated when they feel their employer cares about them and wants to provide for their needs.

– Employee satisfaction: Employees feel more satisfied when they see that their employer invests in them and their future.

– Productivity: A happy employee is a productive one, so it’s essential to ensure that your employees have all the resources they need to succeed at work.

-Employees are more committed to the company they work for.

-The staff feel more valued by their employer.

– Workers may have a better work-life balance.

-Staff turnover rates decrease: They’re less likely to leave the company for other opportunities or companies.

-It’s a cost-effective way of attracting new candidates and retaining current employees.

Employee benefits are the incentives employers provide for their staff to attract, motivate and retain them.

Wellman Shew has been in the insurance for over four decades. As President and Agency Manager of Shew & Company Inc. for over 17 years, he is a specialist in employee benefits, Section 125 plans, health savings accounts, long-term care, 401k plans, life insurance, and disability insurance. 

How the Addition of Financial Planning Services Can Enhance Your CPA Business

Adding financial planning to your CPA business increases your cash flow and service offering to new clients and existing clients, per Barry Bulakites, a Denver financial services provider.

If you already have a CPA business, you already know that it’s largely a seasonal business. In order to smooth out your cash flow and increase your revenue, you can expand your services to include financial planning, suggests Barry Bulakites, President of Table Bay Financial Network and a Denver-based financial services provider.

As a Certified Professional Accountant, you face competition from tax preparation companies offering services through brick and mortar and online venues. However, you can offer something these companies do not. By taking a three-hour securities exam, you can include insurance planning, investment planning, and other wealth management services your clients need, according to Barry Bulakites.

Keep reading to learn more reasons to widen your knowledge and customer base in this manner.

Barry Bulakites Advocates Delighting Clients With Expanded Services

Financial planning services give your clients one more reason to stay with you and recommend your business to their colleagues and friends. You can provide a one-stop solution for wealth management, saving clients time, money, and stress, per Barry Bulakites.

Take estate planning, for example. Clients aim to minimize taxes and keep expenses down during the estate planning process. However, they also want to make sure that their beneficiaries receive as much of the estate as possible. Instead of going to multiple professionals, they can use your firm for their individual and business financial needs as well as estate planning and other financial planning matters.

It Makes You More Competitive

Bundle services help you stand out from other CPA firms and financial planning companies. You have already advised your customers regarding financial matters, and they trust you. Use this relationship to give your clients access to wealth management services that will help them with buying a home, funding their children’s education, and preparing for retirement, said Barry Bulakites.

Offer wealth management to diversify what your practice has to offer. To stand out from other CPA firms, according to Barry Bulakites, you must build a practice based on meeting all the clients’ needs. That includes accounting, tax preparation, and financial planning.

Provide Comprehensive Financial Services

When you provide guidance for current and future financial planning, you give your clients peace of mind. According to Barry Bulakites, they will appreciate the forward-thinking approach of combining these services. It will also help your clients make better financial decisions with a 360-degree view that encompasses both current and future goals.

Barry Bulakites Suggests that CPAs Leverage Their Insight

Barry Bulakites encourages CPAs to expand their service offering for the benefit of themselves, their staff, and their clients. After all, CPAs have more to offer than minimally trained tax preparers or online software that lacks insight into financial planning.

Roy Y. Gagaza Reveals Why Income Planning Is So Important for Retirees

How Does Income Planning Work? Roy Y. Gagaza Weighs In

Ideally, retirees shouldn’t rely solely on their savings to support their lifestyle as they age. Roy Y. Gagaza discusses how income planning works and why it’s not a luxury anymore. 

When Social Security first debuted, it provided a reliable income for people learning to live without a steady paycheck. Today, retirement is complicated by everything from tax brackets to unpredictable inflation. 

Roy Y. Gagaza is a Financial Professional and a big proponent of income planning to combat the uncertainties of the future. He reveals why no one can afford to ignore this strategy. 

The concept of income planning is relatively simple: professionals build their portfolio so they have a certain amount of money available every month. Long before their retirement age rolls around, they’ve already made major strides to set up a thick financial cushion for themselves. 

Implementing income planning can be more complex though. Roy Y. Gagaza notes that the number of avenues available is virtually limitless. Some people will withdraw money solely from their retirement accounts. Others will cobble together income from assets like Social Security, rental properties, or stock dividends. It could mean a part-time job that taps into a hobby a client has had for their entire lives. 

The goal of a Financial Professional  is to ensure that every source of income is as secure as possible. Roy Y. Gagaza has to calculate odds and factor that into forecasts. For instance, if a commercial property with 4 units is expected to be occupied at least 80% of the year, then the numbers will reflect that. 

This is the best way to give retirees a real picture of what their life will look like. It goes beyond the standard advice of amassing $1 million to withdraw between $40,000 – $50,000 a year. When people know what they have and how it will be distributed to them, it’s easier to plan for anything from utilities to vacations. 

When Roy Y. Gagaza considers his clients’ needs, he also thinks about common scenarios that might derail their retirement plans. From medical ailments to education expenses for descendants, people often need more than they think to live out their Golden Years without financial anxiety. The better the income planning, the more prepared they’ll be. 

Roy Y. Gagaza on Exploring the Options

Income planning will depend on a professional’s relationship with risk and their personal lifestyles. Not everyone will want to be a property owner or invest in an industry they know little about. 

It’s why Gagaza has learned to be meticulous about what he suggests to his clients and how he steers them toward a holistic financial strategy that makes sense for them. His goal is to assure his clients they haven’t left a penny on the table. 

Reading for ROI: Arkhat G. Zhumadilov flips through 4 books for first-time investors

Picking up a good book might be more than just a page-turner. It might be profitable too.

Walk into any bookstore, and you’ll surely see entire sections dedicated to personal finance. Selections include self-help, how-tos, and memoirs. Each likely chronicles life-changing results. Yet, these aren’t going to replace your go-to, breezy, toes-in-the-sand beach read. Nor is it going to be as engaging as the latest, white-knuckled, gripping thriller. 

However, Arkhat G. Zhumadilov knows reading is more than just “fundamental.” It’s financial.

In fact, Arkhat Zhumadilov knows that there are several must-reads that can put more money in your pocket. As a financial adviser in Spring, The Woodlands, and Montgomery County in Texas, he has assisted more than 100 people, companies, and organizations throughout the last decade. As an owner of his own firm, Arkhat Zhumadilov is quick to give out advice. However, the most important resource may already be sitting on your shelf.

With this in mind, Arkhat G. Zhumadilov has you “covered.” The seasoned professional recommends four must-reads for first-time financial planners and investors.

You Are a Badass at Making Money: Master the Mindset of Wealth

“You Are a Badass” began as a mantra. It has since grown into a worldwide phenomenon. After releasing her debut book in 2013, Jen Sincero has carved out her own self-help and motivational empire. “You Are a Badass at Making Money: Master the Mindset of Wealth” now applies this philosophy to personal finances. Arkhat Zhumadilov appreciates the advice but values its heart even more. Like her other work, this entry is about facing fears, doubts, insecurities, and the barriers that prevent an individual from succeeding. Filled with personal anecdotes, this title is definitely at the top of the list.

Your Money or Your Life

Financial security isn’t easy. This internationally renowned, bestselling book is a brutal “Sophie’s choice” for readers. But it’s also a no-holds-barred indictment of consumerism. Author Vicki Robin questions traditional revenue streams while challenging readers to break this cycle. Ultimately, she believes that most individuals must first redefine their relationship with money. “Your Money or Your Life” offers a nine-step approach for building better habits.

The One-Page Financial Plan

Fans of simplicity love this title. As the name implies, “The One-Page Financial Plan” attempts to distill money management into one, single-page document. Author and certified planner Carl Richards uses his background to teach readers how to navigate potential pitfalls. Yet, most importantly, his advice is actionable. Following his guidelines, Arkhat G. Zhumadilov believes any reader can finish reading and instantly have a results-based direction for their financial future.

Broke Millennial: Stop Scraping by and Get Your Financial Life Together

If you swipe, scroll, tweet, or TikTok, then Erin Lowry is writing directly to you. “Broke Millennial” definitely caters to a younger audience. The pages are filled with easy-to-follow guides devoted to straightforward, step-by-step instructions for beginners as they embark on their financial journey. Yet you don’t have to be a 20-something to reap the rewards. Arkhat G. Zhumadilov finds the prose very conversational and witty. He especially enjoys the funny personal stories that are sprinkled throughout. Like “You Are A Badass,” this entry is the first in a quickly expanding series.

Ways to spark creativity at work to become a good leader:

Before even applying to any job you should understand your skills and creative thinking. Also, every hiring manager in marketing, advertising or any other industry knows what he wants to see in their employees in order to be successful as an organisation. Creativity speaks about your business of making people care about what you do, or sell because without the wisdom of your employees, you will not be able to compete.

The characteristics of being a great leader are about being smart and creative. Whether in the form of a business or an agency, creativity is not always an easy talent to bring out to the people. There should be constant evolution in creative ideas at work to maintain a balanced flow in the ecosystem. Here are 5 ways to renew your team’s creative spark in order to get the best outputs:

  1. Be supportive of their creative ideas: Make sure you give them immense support whether you like their idea or sometimes even not because demotivation at any point can lead to the degradation of your team’s effectiveness and growth. It may be difficult for employees to take risks in this stage of their career, but believe us this is the right stage as the risk is where some of the most innovative and successful ideas come from.
  • Always appreciate and reward their creativity: A good leader should always encourage your marketing and the creative team by letting them know through appreciation and deserving rewards that you will listen to their ideas, no matter how big or small, as long as they believe in them instead of shooting them down immediately. Therefore, do not leave any good work or that matter any work unnoticed.
  • Provide a perfect creative environment: It becomes very messy and stressful when your team just go into too much work but it’s your job as a good leader to create a perfect environment by giving them needed space. You should know more than anyone else how your team’s environment affects your creativity, attitude and how they work. Allow your teams a liquid environment, a flexible workplace, arrange for off-site opportunities and many more. So, that it can boost their creative flow.
  • Never try to limit or demean their creative ideas, find ways to create conversation and explain them: Do not limit the extent to which you can combine expertise in the workplace. Encourage a place where everyone, regardless of position, can share their creative ideas and participate in the work to establish a creative balance in the flow.

Conclusion:

So, make sure to inculcate the ways mentioned above in your employees to build a strong team. To learn and grab more knowledge on such topics of company leadership and growth do refer to Bernard Brozek‘s blogs.

Wyckoff’s Method: LTG Trading explains the 3 laws that drive stock trading

Investors are always looking for insight. LTG Trading knows that Wyckoff’s Method may be the edge you need.

But, this isn’t exactly a “secret weapon.” Ever since it was created in the early 1900s, this process has been highly regarded as one of the most practical trading theories. Through observation and data analysis, Richard D. Wyckoff created a technical approach to determining market forces and influences. And it’s all encompassing. In addition to standardizing the average, “composite” investor, his methodology includes two governing rules, three fundamental laws, and a five-step approach. This can be a lot for novice investors.

Fortunately, LTG Trading can help. The Illinois-based firm was established on mentoring and education, focusing specifically on Wyckoff’s Method. While they offer wide-ranging tools and seminars, their brokers break down the method’s three basic laws below.

The law of supply and demand.

Supply and demand drive the direction of pricing in most sectors. Wyckoff’s Method is no different. In fact, it is central to his entire approach to investing and trading. When demand exceeds the available supply, prices increase. In contrast, low demand for a particular stock forces a drop in pricing. It’s all about balance. Prospective traders study volume bars and price action to evaluate changes over time.

Although this principle is seemingly simple, it requires skill to accurately analyze and identify these patterns. It also requires considerable practice. As part of its curriculum, LTG Trading fosters these techniques in its members, helping them predict future market movements.

The law of cause and effect.

Supply and demand is not random. Rather, it’s the result of specific, observable events. Wyckoff’s second law of cause and effect explains this assertion. Periods of trading represent the “cause.” When inventors accumulate assets through buying or distributing holdings by selling, they create a trigger. This is followed by either an uptrend or downtrend, respectively. This is the “effect.”

In essence, the law of cause and effect is the filter for analysts to set pricing targets. This principle enables traders and investors to construct price objectives by gauging potential emerging trends. LTG Trading and others use point-and-figure charting to measure these causes and project the impact of its effect.

The law of effort vs. results

According to this third law, price changes are a direct result of trading volume. In this scenario, trading volume is the effort. There must be harmony between these two forces. If pricing and volume are in balance, the current trend is likely to continue. However, the opposite signals an early warning for savvy investors. Disparities between price and volume represent a reversal of an existing trend. For example, big upward movements that do not result in higher prices mean that traders are selling off positions. A course correction is perhaps on the horizon.

In short, volume, which is described as effort, and pricing, which is the result, must be proportionate. If not, other forces are at play. Use any data and tools at your disposal to detect what may be happening.

Gold Safe Exchange Discusses How to Add Precious Metals to a Rock Solid Portfolio

You can buy and hold gold to diversify your assets in any economy. Learn several ways to add precious metals to your portfolio, courtesy of industry leaders at Gold Safe Exchange.

In an uncertain economy and rising inflation, it’s important to diversify your saving strategies. As noted by the Gold Safe Exchange website, gold has outperformed the Dow Jones Industrial Average for over a decade. There are several reasons it makes sense to purchase and hold precious metals, including the following.

Owning Precious Metals

“Precious metals like gold are an asset you can expect to maintain or increase in value over time when looking back at 20+ year historical averages,” according to representatives at Gold Safe Exchange. People buy gold because it holds its value and typically increases in value over time.

Gold and silver “stackers” aim to collect as much of these precious metals as possible. This could include bars, rounds and coins. “Stackers” look for precious metals in any form and seek out bargains. Products meant to be stacked include bullion coins such as the Gold Canadian Maple Leaf, Gold American Buffalo, Gold American Eagle, and Gold South African Krugerrand.

Collect Precious Metals

You can also purchase collectible items made of precious metals. Rounds, coins and bars also fall into this category. Collectible coins worth more than their weight include dimes and quarters made before 1965, which consist of 90% silver. Other examples include Morgan and Peace silver dollars and Saint-Gaudens double eagles $20 gold coins. Since collectibles are more valuable than less popular coins, you don’t have to buy as many to grow your wealth.

Gold and silver can be an excellent hedge against inflation.

“Thousands of our clients buy gold and silver to provide protection against the decreasing value of the dollar,” Gold Safe Exchange officials noted.

You can also collect bars and rounds. Many people pay well above spot prices to own particular rounds and bars. Plus, you have the added advantage that even if they become less popular, gold and silver collectibles retain the intrinsic value of their underlying metals. The same is not true of cars, toys, and popular culture collectibles.

Gold Safe Exchange Provides Wealth Diversification

“Markets are cyclical, and history repeats itself. The 2008 crash cut the wealth of most Americans in half,” according to Gold Safe Exchange advisors.

Most fiduciaries who want to maintain credible reputations advise clients to put their accumulated wealth into different baskets. How much gold or silver should your assets contain? This allocation depends on your risk tolerance. You may want to put at least 5% to 10% of your savings into precious metals to offset stocks, exchange-traded funds, and bonds, which are susceptible to volatile fluctuations.

You can even diversify within precious metals, including palladium and platinum, as well as gold and silver bullion, for example.

Stock Precious Metals for Retirement

Did you know that you can include precious metals in your Individual Retirement Account (IRA)? Self-directed, precious metal IRAs can provide a tax shelter. Check with Gold Safe Exchange to learn more about how to open a precious metal IRA. It’s typically pretty easy to get started by opening and funding an account then purchasing precious metals.

Precious metals act as a financial safety net for individuals looking for liquidity and stable value over a long time. Gold and silver bullion, bars and coins, including collectibles, present one option for including these assets in your wealth management plan. You can also include precious metals in your self-directed IRA. So, consider holding these assets as part of your overall personal financial strategy.

Understanding the levels of “fineness” for gold

When we talk about a karat or mention the word “fineness” of gold we are talking about the weight of the actual gold in an object. In doing so, we also include any base metals that may be found within the object. For instance, when jewellery is made out of gold or silver, base metals are added to make it harder and more durable. Often pure gold is referenced as 999 or 9999 fine gold. But what does that mean? Sterling silver will be 92.5%

The fineness of gold is measured in two ways. You can use the karat measure of a millesimal fineness scale.

The karat measure is the fractional purity of gold or silver in parts fine per 24 parts. The millesimal scale is a system used in denoting purity of gold alloys by parts per 1000 of pure gold in the alloy according to its total mass. This is expressed with a three-fire number and is used as a hallmark. Look out for this hallmark when you sell silver bullion brisbane. A fine gold bar which contains 99.9% gold will have a label that either says 999 or .999. Also, expect to be paid slightly less if your gold bullion bar is only 99.6% pure.

When using the karat standard, 24 K is considered to be the purest form of gold. This means 24 Karat is the same as 999 fineness. It follows then that 22 will be 91.67% pure, and be referred to as 916 gold. 18k will be 75% pure gold, 14k will equal 58.5% purity and be referred to as 585 gold whilst 10 karat will be referred to as 417 on account of containing 41.7% pure gold.  

The Karat system is not commonly used outside of the jewellery industry. Millesimal fineness is used by buyers who deal in bullion bars and coins. 24k gold which is also referred to at .999 fine gold or “three-nines fine” is commonly used to mint Chine Panda Coins. 

When you sell silver bullion Brisbane most bars minimum purity or fineness is 99.5% or 995. Silver Bullion bars of this particular quality are classed as premium investment products. Silver bullion bars also need to have certified weight and the stamp of the refinery making the bar or bullion dealer distributing the bar. They usually come in 10oz, 1kg, 100oz or 5kg.

Other high grade silver coins such as Silver Kangaroo’s or Silver Britannia’s have a fineness of 99.9. Most commonly seen British, or Australian silver coins or old currency have fineness of 92.5% This is known as sterling.

 Moving across to gold fineness The purest gold ever created for commercial use was a fine gold plate refined to 999.999 by Perth Mint in Australia in the 50s. This was a magnificent feat that has not been repeated ever since because the process that gets gold to that level of purity is long and costly. Besides, when gold is that close to 100% purity, it tends to be too soft.

It is important that you understand the purity or fineness of your gold or silver bullion before selling so that you know you are getting the best price for it. Fine investment grade gold or silver is not only formed into bars, but it is also used to mint bullion coins.  Most silver bullion products will have fitness engraved or they will come with a certificate to authenticate purity. Having marks of authenticity will make selling your silver bullion easier and faster.